Impairment of vision that occurs when the lens of your eye becomes clouded is referred to as a cataract. The functioning of your eye is similar to that of a camera. The light rays enter your eye, pass through the aqueous humor (transparent fluid), cornea, and pupil and fall on the lens, which bends the light rays and focuses objects onto your retina at the back of your eye. The image is passed on to the brain for processing the image through the optic nerve by the retina cells.
Protein buildup on the lens, which makes it cloudy, leads to the formation of cataract and
prevents light rays from passing through. Further, the older cells get compacted at the center of the lens as new cells form, causing some amount of vision loss.
Types of Cataracts
Age-related Cataracts: This type develops as you age.Congenital Cataracts: Injury, infection or poor development often lead to cataracts in newborn babies. Secondary Cataracts: Medical conditions such as diabetes; use of certain drugs such as diuretics or corticosteroids; or exposure to ultraviolet light, toxic substances or radiation can also lead to the development of cataracts.Traumatic Cataracts: Injury to your eye can also lead to the formation of cataracts. Other factors such as smoking, air pollution and consumption of alcohol in large amounts can also increase the risk of you developing a cataract.
Symptoms of Cataracts
Cataracts form over a period and cause very few symptoms till they mature and block light in a noticeable manner. Symptoms include:
Cloudy, foggy, blurry or filmy visionProgressive nearsightednessChanges in color perception as your discolored lens acts like a filterDifficulty in driving at nightExperiencing problems with glare during day timeDouble visionSudden changes in the power of your glasses
Diagnosis of Cataracts
An examination of your eye to understand how well you can see will help your doctor diagnose the development of cataract. You should have your glasses on or wear your contacts when you come to meet your doctor. The eye specialist may also dilate your pupil and examine the condition of your lens and other parts of your eye.
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